Sample essay. The remainder of this essay writing tutorial is based on a short sample 'divorce essay' (about 1,0. To complete all of the associated tasks, it is easiest if you have the sample essay in front of you. A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace.
This change is borne out clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1. A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1.
An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the 'divorce phenomenon' and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it.
Management Systems International (MSI), a Tetra Tech company, is a US-based international development firm that specializes in designing, implementing and evaluating. Using Case Studies to do Program Evaluation valuation of any kind is designed to document what happened in a program. Evaluation should show: 1) what actually occurred. Program evaluation is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions about projects, policies and programs, particularly.
It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio- economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage.
For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with 'access to a legal solution to pre- existent marital problems' (p. Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes.
2 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this Guidebook is to establish a set of common principles for the Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DM&E) of Mercy Corps projects. Survey Design. Knowing what the client wants is the key factor to success in any type of business. News media, government agencies and political candidates need to. Corrective Reading Decoding: An evaluation Print; Email; Corrective Reading Decoding: An evaluation - Kerry Hempenstall June 2014. This paper is an update of.
For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers.
According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart's explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable.
This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple's access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1.
In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. Harrison, 1. 99. 0). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1.
Marxist- feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies.
This is because the Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate.
Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (Mc. Donald, 1. 99. 3).
This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind.
It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio- economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1. This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present.
Basic Guide to Program Evaluation (Including Many Additional Resources)© Copyright Carter Mc. Namara, MBA, Ph. D, Authenticity Consulting. LLC. Adapted from the Field Guide to Nonprofit Program Design, Marketing. Evaluation. This document provides guidance toward planning and implementing.
Nonprofit. organizations are increasingly interested in outcomes- based evaluation. If you are interested in learning more about outcomes- based evaluation. Outcomes- Evaluation. Outcomes- Based Evaluations in Nonprofit Organizations. Sections of This Topic Include.
Program Evaluation: carefully getting. Where Program Evaluation is Helpful. Basic Ingredients (you need an organization.
Planning Program Evaluation (what do. Major Types of Program Evaluation (evaluating. Overview of Methods to Collect Information. Selecting Which Methods to Use (which. Analyzing and Interpreting Information. Reporting Evaluation Results.
Who Should Carry Out the Evaluation? Contents of an Evaluation Plan. Pitfalls to Avoid. Online Guides, etc. Outcomes- Evaluation. General Resources.
Also see. Evaluations (many. Related Library Topics. Related Library Topics. Also See the Library's Blogs Related to Program Evaluations. In addition to the articles on this current page, see the following blogs which. Program Evaluations. Scan down the blog's page to see.
Also see the section "Recent Blog Posts" in the sidebar. Library's Business. Planning Blog. Library's Building.
Business Blog. Library's Strategic. Planning Blog. A Brief Introduction .. Note that the concept of program evaluation can include a wide. There are numerous books and other. However, personnel do not have to be experts in these topics to. The "2. 0- 8. 0" rule.
It's better to do what might turn out to be an average effort. Besides, if you. resort to bringing in an evaluation consultant, you should be. Far too many program evaluations generate information. This document orients personnel to the.
Note that much of the information in this section was gleaned. Michael Quinn Patton. Program Evaluation. Some Myths About Program Evaluation. Many people believe evaluation is a useless activity that.
This was. a problem with evaluations in the past when program evaluation. This approach often. Generalizations and recommendations were avoided. As a result, evaluation reports tended to reiterate the obvious.
More recently (especially. Michael Patton's development of utilization- focused. Many people believe that evaluation is about proving the.
This myth assumes that success. This doesn't happen in real life. Success. is remaining open to continuing feedback and adjusting the program. Evaluation gives you this continuing feedback. Many believe that evaluation is a highly unique and complex.
Many people believe. They don't have to. They do have to consider what information.
And they have to be willing to commit to understanding. Note that many people regularly undertake. Consequently, they miss precious opportunities to make more of. So What is Program Evaluation? First, we'll consider "what is a program?" Typically. In nonprofits. each of these goals often becomes a program.
Nonprofit programs. Programs must be evaluated. In. a for- profit, a program is often a one- time effort to produce. So, still, what is program evaluation? Program evaluation is carefully. Program. evaluation can include any or a variety of at least 3. The type of evaluation you.
Don't worry about what type of evaluation. Where Program Evaluation is Helpful. Frequent Reasons: Program evaluation can: 1.
Understand, verify or increase the impact of products or services. These "outcomes" evaluations. Too. often, service providers (for- profit or nonprofit) rely on their. Over time, these organizations find themselves. Improve delivery mechanisms to be more efficient and less costly. Over time, product or service delivery ends up to be an inefficient. Evaluations can identify program strengths and weaknesses.
Verify that you're doing what you think you're doing - Typically. Evaluations can verify if the. Other Reasons: Program evaluation can: 4. Facilitate management's really thinking about what their program. Produce data or verify results that can be used for public. Produce valid comparisons between programs to decide which. Fully examine and describe effective programs for duplication.
Basic Ingredients: Organization and Program(s)You Need An Organization: This may seem too obvious to discuss, but before an organization. You Need Program(s): To effectively conduct program evaluation, you should first. That is, you need a strong impression of what your. You may have used a needs. Next, you. need some effective methods to meet each of those goals.
These. methods are usually in the form of programs. It often helps to think of your programs in terms of inputs.
Inputs are the various resources. The process is how the program is.
The outputs are the units of service, e. Outcomes are the impacts on the customers or on clients receiving. Planning Your Program Evaluation. Depends on What Information You Need to Make Your Decisions. On Your Resources. Often, management wants to know everything about their products. However, limited resources usually force.
Your program evaluation plans depend on what information you. Usually, management. For example, do you.
You may want other information or. Ultimately, it's up to you. But the more focused you are about what you want to examine. There are trade offs, too, in the breadth and depth of information.
The more breadth you want, usually the less depth you. On the other hand, if you want to examine a certain.
For those starting out in program evaluation or who have very. They can both understand. Key Considerations: Consider the following key questions when designing a program. For what purposes is the evaluation being done, i. Who are the audiences for the information from the evaluation.
What kinds of information are needed to make the decision you. From what sources should the information be collected, e. How can that information be collected in a reasonable fashion. When is the information needed (so, by when must it be collected)? What resources are available to collect the information? Some Major Types of Program Evaluation.
When designing your evaluation approach, it may be helpful. Note that you should not design.
Goals- Based Evaluation. Often programs are established to meet one or more specific.
These goals are often described in the original program. Goal- based evaluations are evaluating the extent to which programs. Questions to ask. How were the program goals (and objectives, is applicable).
Was the process effective? What is the status of the program's progress toward achieving. Will the goals be achieved according to the timelines specified. If not, then. why? Do personnel have adequate resources (money, equipment, facilities.
How should priorities be changed to put more focus on achieving. Depending on the context, this question might be viewed. How should timelines be changed (be careful about making these. How should goals be changed (be careful about making these. Should any goals be added or removed?
Why? 8. How should goals be established in the future? Process- Based Evaluations. Process- based evaluations are geared to fully understanding. These evaluations are useful if programs are long- standing. There are numerous questions that might be addressed in a process. These questions can be selected by carefully considering. Examples of questions.
On what basis do employees and/or the customers decide that. What is required of employees in order to deliver the product. How are employees trained about how to deliver the product.
How do customers or clients come into the program? What is required of customers or client?
How do employees select which products or services will be. What is the general process that customers or clients go through. What do customers or clients consider to be strengths of the. What do staff consider to be strengths of the product or program? What typical complaints are heard from employees and/or customers?
What do employees and/or customers recommend to improve the. On what basis do employees and/or the customer decide that. Outcomes- Based Evaluation. Program evaluation with an outcomes focus is increasingly important.
An outcomes- based evaluation. Outcomes are benefits to clients from participation. Outcomes are usually in terms of enhanced learning. Outcomes are often confused. The United Way of America (http: //www. The following information is a.
To accomplish an outcomes- based evaluation, you should first. The general steps to accomplish an outcomes- based evaluation. Identify the major outcomes that you want to examine or verify. You might reflect on your mission.
For example, if your overall mission is to provide shelter. As a last resort, you. What major activities are we doing now?". Why are we doing that?". The answer to this "Why?" question is usually an outcome. This "last resort" approach, though, may just end up.
Choose the outcomes that you want to examine, prioritize the. For each outcome, specify what observable measures, or indicators. This is often the most important and enlightening step. However, it is often the most challenging.
It helps. to have a "devil's advocate" during this phase of identifying. Specify a "target" goal of clients, i. African American women living in the inner city of Minneapolis. Identify what information is needed to show these indicators. If. your program is new, you may need to evaluate the process in the.
Michael Patton, prominent researcher. Decide how can that information be efficiently and realistically. Selecting. Which Methods to Use below). Consider program documentation. You may not. need all of the above.
Overview of Methods to Collect Information below). Analyze and report the findings (see Analyzing and Interpreting Information below). Overview of Methods to Collect Information. The following table provides an overview of the major methods.
Method. Overall Purpose. Advantages. Challenges. Also see: Appreciative. Design. Ethics: Informed Consent from Program Participants.